Skip to content

未分类

Oracle 12c 升级失败的降级步骤

Oracle 12c 升级失败的降级步骤

 

降级前步骤
– XML DB 组件在 12c 中是必需的。
在升级到 12c 期间,将安装 XML DB 组件(如果未安装)。
从 12c 降级将删除安装的 XDB 组件

- Enterprise Manager 不支持降级。在降级之前,请重新配置 Oracle EM 控件。请参阅
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide 12c Release 1 (12.1) E17642-10
6 Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
6.6.5 Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after Downgrading Oracle Database

- 升级到 12c 期间,将删除 Database Control 资料档案库。降级之后,需重新配置 DB Control。

Note 870877.1 How To Save Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Data Before Upgrading The Single Instance Database To Other Release ?
Note 876353.1 How To Restore The Oracle Enterprise Manager Data To Downgrade The Single Instance Database To Previous/Source Release ?
- compatible 参数不能已经更改到 12.1.0。
- 禁用 Data Vault(如果已启用)。
Note 803948.1  How To Uninstall Or Reinstall Database Vault in 11g (UNIX)
Note 453902.1 Enabling and Disabling Oracle Database Vault in WINDOWS
- 如果数据库使用 Oracle Label Security,则在新 Oracle Database 12c Oracle 主目录中运行 Oracle Label Security (OLS) 预处理降级 olspredowngrade.sql 脚本(在 $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin 上提供)。注意!此步骤仅在需要降级到12c之前的版本时才需要
- 时区版本应相同。假设升级数据库的过程中时区版本也被升级了,那么要在升级前在源库打patch。例如11.2.0.4已经升级到12.1.0.2.0,时区作为升级的一部分也升级到了18,那么在降级到11.2.0.4.0之前,在11.2.0.4.0的home上打时区patch 18。
- 取消设置并指向 12c 主目录的 ORA_TZFILE(如果已设置)。
- 如果数据库上有 Oracle Application Express,则必须将 apxrelod.sql 文件从 Oracle Database 12c $ORACLE_HOME/apex/ 目录复制到 Oracle 主目录之外的目录,例如系统上的临时目录以稍后执行。
- 如果基于固定对象创建了对象,则删除这些对象以避免可能的 ORA-00600 错误。您可以在降级之后重新创建这些对象。
- 如果降级集群数据库,则彻底关闭实例并将 CLUSTER_DATABASE 初始化参数更改为 FALSE。降级之后,必须将此参数设置回 TRUE。
- 假设在升级之后你已经在升级的数据库打了patch,那么在降级之前,在数据库级别使用datapatch回滚这些patch。

满足以上先决条件之后,可以继续进行降级。

数据库的降级步骤

1) 确保所有数据库组件有效。只能从成功升级的数据库执行降级。要验证数据库组件状态,请执行以下查询

以 SYS 用户身份连接到数据库

col comp_id format a10
col comp_name format a30
col version format a10
col status format a8

select substr(comp_id,1,15) comp_id,substr(comp_name,1,30) comp_name,substr(version,1,10) version,status from dba_registry

2) 验证没有属于 sys/system 的无效对象

select owner, count(object_name) "Invalid object count" from dba_objects where status!='VALID' and owner in ('SYS','SYSTEM') group by owner;

如果计数为零,则可以继续降级。

如果有无效对象,则执行 utlrp.sql 多次,如果对象无法解析为有效状态,则不能继续降级。建立 SR 或在 DBA 社区上发帖以寻求帮助。

或者,对于 1 和 2,运行以下脚本:

Note 556610.1  Script to Collect DB Upgrade/Migrate Diagnostic Information (dbupgdiag.sql)

3) 关闭数据库

Shutdown immediate

4)  对 12c 数据库做备份

5)  以降级模式启动数据库

Startup downgrade;

6)  执行降级脚本

Sql> Spool downgrade.log

Sql> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catdwgrd.sql

注:
$ORACLE_HOME 应指向 12c 主目录

catdwgrd.sql 脚本将数据库中的所有组件降级到支持的主版本或补丁集版本(您最初升级时的版本)

Sql> spool off

Sql> shutdown immediate

Exit SQL Plus

Sql> exit;

7) 如果操作系统为 LINUX/UNIX:

将以下环境变量更改为要降级到的源数据库:

ORACLE_HOME

PATH

编辑 /etc/oratab or /var/opt/oracle/oratab 以更改

将数据库映射到源数据库 Oracle 主目录

如果操作系统是 Windows,则完成以下步骤:


a. 停止所有 Oracle 服务,包括 Oracle Database 12c 数据库的 OracleServiceSID Oracle 服务,其中 SID 是实例名称。

例如,如果 SID 为 ORCL,则在命令行提示符中输入以下内容:

C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORCL
b. 在命令提示符下,通过运行 ORADIM 命令删除 Oracle 服务。如果出现提示,则输入此 Windows 系统上活动标准用户帐户的口令。

例如,如果 SID 为 ORCL,则输入以下命令:

C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
c. 在命令提示符下,使用 ORADIM 命令创建要降级的数据库的 Oracle 服务。

C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -INTPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS

-STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA

8) 还原配置文件

将配置文件(口令文件、参数文件等)还原到降级版本的 ORACLE_HOME。

9) 如果这是 Oracle RAC 数据库,则执行以下命令以将数据库修改为单实例模式:

SET CLUSTER_DATABASE=FALSE

10) 从降级版本 $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin 目录执行 catrelod 脚本。

启动 sqlplus,以具有 sysdba 权限的用户 SYS 身份连接到数据库实例,然后以升级模式启动数据库:

: cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin

: sqlplus

sql> connect sys as sysdba

sql> startup upgrade

sql> spool catrelod.log

sql> @?/rdbms/admin/catrelod.sql

sql> spool off

catrelod.sql 脚本在降级的数据库中重新加载各个数据库组件的合适版本。

11) 运行 utlrp.sql 脚本:

SQL> @utlrp.sql

Sql> exit;

utlrp.sql 脚本重新编译先前处于 INVALID 状态的所有现有 PL/SQL 模块,例如 package、procedure、type 等。

12) 检查已降级数据库的状态:

Note 556610.1  Script to Collect DB Upgrade/Migrate Diagnostic Information (dbupgdiag.sql)
此 sql 脚本是一组查询语句,用在升级前后诊断数据库的状态。脚本将创建名为 db_upg_diag__<时间戳>.log 的文件。

13) 降级之后,可能在 sys 用户下发现无效的 QT 视图。这是因为视图已从基表中选择了错误的列。需要重新创建这些视图。

请参阅说明:

Note 1520209.1 QT_*BUFER Views Invalid after downgrade from 12C

降级后步骤:
1)如果是降级到 Oracle Database 11g 版本 1 (11.1.0.7) 并且数据库中有 Oracle Application Express,则将 apxrelod.sql 脚本复制到的目录(在降级前步骤中)。
运行 apxrelod.sql 脚本以手动重新加载 Oracle Application Express:

SQL> @apxrelod.sql

运行 apxrelod.sql 脚本以避免程序包 APEX_030200.WWV_FLOW_HELP 由于以下错误而成为 INVALID 状态:

PLS-00201: identifier ‘CTX_DDL’ must be declared
2) 如果数据库中启用了 Oracle Label Security,则执行以下脚本

a. 从 Oracle Database 12c 的 Oracle 主目录下将 olstrig.sql 脚本复制到要将数据库降级到的版本的 Oracle 主目录。

b. 从降级到的版本的 Oracle 主目录,运行 olstrig.sql 以在表上使用 Oracle Label Security 策略重新创建 DML 触发器:

SQL> @olstrig.sql

3) 如果降级集群数据库,则必须运行以下命令以降级 Oracle Clusterware database 配置:

$ srvctl downgrade database -d db-unique-name -o oraclehome -t to_version
其中 db-unique-name 是数据库名称(而非实例名称),oraclehome 是已降级数据库的旧 Oracle 主目录的位置,to_version 是数据库所降级到的数据库版本

因为代码的改变,现在-to_version对应的值如下:

RDBMS Version -to_version Value
9.2.0.*              9.2.0.0.0
10.1.0.*            10.0.0.0.0
10.2.0.*            10.2.0.0.0
11.1.0.*            11.0.0.0.0
11.2.0.1            11.2.0.1.0
11.2.0.2            11.2.0.2.0
11.2.0.3            11.2.0.3.0
11.2.0.4            11.2.0.4.0

4) 如果发现失效的SYS/SYETEM的对象,那么可以使用下面的方法来编译这些失效对象

$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba"
SQL> startup upgrade
SQL> spool catout.log
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catproc.sql
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
SQL> spool off
SQL> shutdown immediate

5) 如果数据库从11.2.0.4升级到12.1.0.2之前没有安装XDB,那么在降级回11.2.0.4的时候,XDB的对象需要被移除。然而,我们还是可以发现无效的XDB对象残留在数据库中。这已经被记录为一个bug 22854967,patch已经可以下载了。

Invalid XDB-related Objects After Downgrading To 11.2.0.4 (Doc ID 2163596.1)

his sister jane her Clay Matthews Jersey man rainer domingohonolulu

I’m looking towards moving out and becoming fully independent financially and domestically. I might have skimped out on rent for recent years years, But if my living at home was ever causing my parents any kind financial strain, I wouldn’t have inked it. In any case, Guilt has gotten the better of me and I plan to give them a break for their generosity.

Mariah Smith field hockey legacy runs deep. Her late pops, Mark jones, Whose image is projected on your ball, Was an all state tennis player for Richwoods, A star at the University of Illinois and played professionally, however in Europe. Mariah has created her own mark, Helping Richwoods become a power in girls hockey.

The independent gaming world is obviously an exciting one. With new releases developing all the time and new companies launching nearly as often, The need for a resource to watch what the latest news is a real one. App Games recently announced the launch of their new a way to answer this call.

51st Ave, Glendale.Bills Backers of East Valley Arizona The HUB Grill and BarThis fan group reserves the Hub’s national gathering room for their cheering, And that coffee specials are just icing on the cake.Pieces of information: 1925 S. Sossaman track, Mesa. The membership counts countless local Pats fans, And http://www.packersproshop.cc/green-bay-packers-jerseys-aaron-rodgers-jersey-c-2_3 Jordy Nelson Jersey they like benefits such as food discounts at Toso’s, Plus a monthly e-publication and an end of season fan picnic.Variations: 2401 n.

Good lunch. I’m Mina, And I’ll be your convention operator today. It’s december 6, And I welcome you to Boulder Brands 2014 Third Quarter business call and Audio Webcast. Watch Zynga and put off it to drop 50% below its high the day of its IPO then buy it. And, Wait some are more, Before the stock returns 30 40% then sell. Some $5,000 is $6,500 then utilize the $6,500 on up coming IPO.

“The older animals will continue 100 pounds, But we rarely you can keep them, Biggs exclaimed. “No-one rides them, Not just kids. They’re really just pack animals. Growth for high end specialty teas will in all probability decline in 2009. Drastically that many fine Indian teas fall into this category. It certainly appears that the only positive growth exhibited during the first four months of the year is for cheaper teas from 2 3 producing countries.

The Eagles are 7 for 7 in the red zone with Sanchez at qb compared to 8 for 23 when Nick Foles was playing. The Packers are tied for ninth in passing yardage left. But if Green Bay focuses primarily on stopping the run, Like Carolina did a week ago, The Eagles will Aaron Rodgers Jersey need to pass against the Packers.

hmo's lead sideline reporter Packers jersey for abc sports'

He earned 12 fixed Pro Bowl nods, Was referred to First Team All Pro in 1999, 2002 and 2003 and named in your NFL All Decade Team of the 2000s.75b. Will guards family.76. How lucky are you notion? The Ohio lotto float. Gambling cornerback Dominique Rodgers Cromartie(41) Returns a fumble by Dallas Cowboys wide radio Cole Beasley(11) For a touchdown your first half of an NFL football game Sunday, September. 13, 2015, Over Arlback by usinggton, Tx. (AP Photo/Brandon sort)The Cowboys are principal the game statistically, But trail combined with two turnovers that led to 10 points for the Giants in the final minute of the second quarter..

Group, Having a output capacity of one lakh kg(10 lakh packages) On a daily basis, Sells in existence 180 lakh kg annually. Private information is planning to expand its production and round the year storage capacity also.Wagh Bakri enjoys a 50 per cent business in Gujarat, 20 % in Rajasthan and 10 15 percent in Madhya Pradesh. The brand has a global presence in the lot more 32 countries, Mr Desai built in..

E wasn’t able to witness HER SINCE SUMMER, THAT’S WHY I WANTED TO ASK the caretaker LIKE WHERE HER DAUGHTER WAS, BUT IT’S NOT my opportunity. Media http://www.packersproshop.cc/ Packers Pro Shop press news reporter: OTHER neighborhood friends SAW THE NEWS COVERAGE BUT NEVER CONNECTED THE DOTS. I WATCHED IT nearly EVERY DAY, I’M expecting THEM TO FIND OUT WHO THE CHILD WAS, NEVER EVEN dreamed of IT.

Threw 10 TDs without interception against Chicago last season six in November to tie team game record, Game NFL mark for a half.. RB Eddie delicate had 1,139 back meters and 13 TDs(Nine hastening, Four getting) Using 2014. He is first Packer with about 1,000 yards rushing and 10 scrimmage TDs in each of first two NFL changing gardening seasons..

The very next day, A 30 minute bus ride will take you to your tour of Machu Picchu.Inn to Inn riding in IrelandDuration: 3 daysDistance: 55 milesCost: $1,425 per personIf you’re comfortable in an English saddle and isn’t galloping across the dewy green Irish countryside strikes you as romantic, This short getaway might be the selection for you. The ride begins in the vicinity of Dublin in County Wicklow, Where you’ll relish spectacular views of the Irish Sea and a route that takes you along riverbanks, Lakeshores, Past Celtic wrecks, And from pine forests. In the dark, You snuggle into homey B only with regard to want more days in the saddle, This trip can be additional official Packers jersey to six days on the trail.

and whose as well as father were pentecostal ministers

Clearly, He will have stuck with the old one. Woodward understood perfectly the requirements of the England rugby team. He treated members of the squad like potential world champions, Once producing his own credit card to ensure that they were fittingly accommodated and then sorting it out with the office environment back at Twickenham..

That was fantastic place. They didn have too much about Harvard or Princeton then, Which you people who might be talking to this, Could think were better than Yale. All the same, I digressing here a touch. Is http://www.packersproshop.cc/ an excellent sport for kids. It not the most glamorous and there isn always the big status, But we have 70 kids at all levels coming out for x-country. Through the season there might be changes, So check back for the actual updates..

Thinking about receiving 20, 1986 Martin Luther emperor, Jr Day was declared a federal visit to 1983, And celebrated in my ballet shoes on January 20, 1986. In 1992 director George H. T. The actor’s journey from the small screen to the big screen was not at all hard and Anoop remains one of the few, Flat screen tv stars in Malayalam to have met with reel success. His break came in 2002 when he was cast by home Vinayan in Kattuchembakam. And subsequently the offers just kept on rolling.

The pittsburgh steelers refused to die after Green Bay went ahead, 28 17. Pittsburgh trimmed the lead down to three with a touchdown and two point process. The Packers struck back with a cost effective 10 play drive that advanced them to the Steelers’ 5 and drained the clock down to 2 minutes, 7 moments..

“I think it says that he’s growing, Smith said of Winston’s fulfillment. “Experience helps you with everything. It can be talk, Chat, Touch upon it, But that it is best to get in that situation. “I think the growing trend, There’s no doubt that, Is only to calm them down,” the tour bus said. “They’re likely to be excited to play, But the positive aspect of JB and Rob is that they played a lot of snaps in the preseason and they played and matched up against good players in the preseason and played good players out here every day in practice. They may have respect for(Get better) Shield _ we all do.

YET FEELS a new AWAY. WE’RE just 45 MINUTES FROM BOSTON. I DON’T THINK THERE’S ANOTHER PLACE IN THE STATE and REALLY IMMERSE YOURSELF IN A LANDSCAPE AS COMPLETELY AS YOU CAN HERE. The study took death accreditation of over 3,400 ex professional football players whom had played at least five seasons in the nfl(Football) Who expired due to Amyotrophic vast range Sclerosis(ALS) Or higher quality to the public as Lou Gehrig’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease disease and Parkinson’s disease. The study also wanted to determine whether particular positions have a propensity to increase the risk, So that they broke the group into two, One for speed situations like running backs, Fullbacks, Quarterbacks, Wide devices, Tiny ends, Safeties and as well as linebackers. One more one was non speed group offensive and defensive lineman, Place kickers and gamblers.. and whose as well as father were pentecostal ministers

Clearly, He will have stuck with the old one. Woodward understood perfectly the requirements of the England rugby team. He treated Packers jersey members of the squad like potential world champions, Once producing his own credit card to ensure that they were fittingly accommodated and then sorting it out with the office environment back at Twickenham..

That was fantastic place. They didn have too much about Harvard or Princeton then, Which you people who might be talking to this, Could think were better than Yale. All the same, I digressing here a touch. Is an excellent sport for kids. It not the most glamorous and there isn always the big status, But we have 70 kids at all levels coming out for x-country. Through the season there might be changes, So check back for the actual updates..

Thinking about receiving 20, 1986 Martin Luther emperor, Jr Day was declared a federal visit to 1983, And celebrated in my ballet shoes on January 20, 1986. In 1992 director George H. T. The actor’s journey from the small screen to the big screen was not at all hard and Anoop remains one of the few, Flat screen tv stars in Malayalam to have met with reel success. His break came in 2002 when he was cast by home Vinayan in Kattuchembakam. And subsequently the offers just kept on rolling. ‘i feel i’m the lebron of nfl’

The pittsburgh steelers refused to die after Green Bay went ahead, 28 17. Pittsburgh trimmed the Packers Pro Shop lead down to three with a touchdown and two point process. The Packers struck back with a cost effective 10 play drive that advanced them to the Steelers’ 5 and drained the clock down to 2 minutes, 7 moments..

“I think it says that he’s growing, Smith said of Winston’s fulfillment. “Experience helps you with everything. It can be talk, Chat, Touch upon it, But that it is best to get in that situation. “I think the growing trend, There’s no doubt that, Is only to calm them down,” the tour bus said. “They’re likely to be excited to play, But the positive aspect of JB and Rob is that they played a lot of snaps in the preseason and they played and matched up against good players in the preseason and played good players out here every day in practice. They may have respect for(Get better) Shield _ we all do.

YET FEELS a new AWAY. WE’RE just 45 MINUTES FROM BOSTON. I DON’T THINK THERE’S ANOTHER PLACE IN THE STATE and REALLY IMMERSE YOURSELF IN A LANDSCAPE AS COMPLETELY AS YOU CAN HERE. The study took death accreditation of over 3,400 ex professional football players whom had played at least five seasons in the nfl(Football) Who expired due to Amyotrophic vast range Sclerosis(ALS) Or higher quality to the public as Lou Gehrig’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease disease and Parkinson’s disease. official Packers jersey The study also wanted to determine whether particular positions have a propensity to increase the risk, So that they broke the group into two, One for speed situations like running backs, Fullbacks, Quarterbacks, Wide devices, Tiny ends, Safeties and as well as linebackers. One more one was non speed group offensive and defensive lineman, Place kickers and gamblers.. and whose as well as father were pentecostal ministers

Clearly, He will have stuck with the old one. Woodward understood perfectly the requirements of the England rugby team. He treated members of the squad like potential world champions, Once producing his own Brett Favre Jersey credit card to ensure that they were fittingly accommodated and then sorting it out with the office environment back at Twickenham..

That was fantastic place. They didn have too much about Harvard or Princeton then, Which you people who might be talking to this, Could think were better than Yale. All the same, I digressing here a touch. Is an excellent sport for kids. It not the most glamorous and there isn always the big status, But we have 70 kids at all levels coming out for x-country. Through the season there might be changes, So check back for the actual updates..

Thinking about receiving 20, 1986 Martin Luther emperor, Jr Day was declared a federal visit to 1983, And celebrated in my ballet shoes on January 20, 1986. In 1992 director George H. T. The actor’s journey from the small screen to the big Brett Hundley Jersey screen was not at all hard and Anoop remains one of the few, Flat screen tv stars in Malayalam to have met with reel success. His break came in 2002 when he was cast by home Vinayan in Kattuchembakam.
And subsequently the offers just kept on rolling.

The pittsburgh steelers refused to die after Green Bay went ahead, 28 17. Pittsburgh trimmed the lead down to three with a touchdown and two point process. The Packers struck back with a cost effective 10 play drive that advanced them to the Steelers’ 5 and drained the clock down to 2 minutes, 7 moments..

“I think it says that he’s growing, Smith said of Winston’s fulfillment. “Experience helps you with everything. It can be talk, Chat, Touch upon it, But that it is best to get in that situation. “I think the growing trend, There’s no doubt that, Is only to calm them down,” the tour bus said. “They’re likely to be excited to play, But the positive aspect of JB and Rob is that they played a lot of snaps in the preseason and they played and matched up against good players in the preseason and played good players out here every day in practice. They may have respect for(Get better) Shield _ we all do.

YET FEELS a new AWAY. WE’RE just 45 MINUTES FROM BOSTON. I DON’T THINK THERE’S ANOTHER PLACE IN THE STATE and REALLY IMMERSE YOURSELF IN A LANDSCAPE AS COMPLETELY AS YOU CAN HERE. The study took death accreditation of over 3,400 ex professional Bryan Bulaga Jersey football players whom had played at least five seasons in the nfl(Football) Who expired due to Amyotrophic vast range Sclerosis(ALS) Or higher quality to the public as Lou Gehrig’s disease, he retired as a crane owner for hawaii stevedore inc Alzheimer’s disease disease and Parkinson’s disease. The study also wanted to determine whether particular positions have a propensity to increase the risk, So that they broke the group into two, One for speed situations like running backs, Fullbacks, Quarterbacks, Wide devices, Tiny ends, Safeties and as well as linebackers. One more one was non speed group offensive and defensive lineman, Place kickers and gamblers..

he in order to move on

Mn Public Radio’s Art Hughes reports. Rybak isn’t really the one new mayor in the Twin Cities. Randy Kelly gets control of as mayor of St. In an article about the major purchase of six brands Packers jersey by B Foods(New york stock exchange:BGS) Totally between Unilever NV(New york stock exchange:United nations), I noted that there were many positives in the news release. The acquisition included several products based in the supermarket spice aisle and is expected to be accretive to earnings. I also expressed some reservations about castro of two non food brands Static Guard and Kleen Guard and how they fit into B product portfolio.

Minnesota is two games within the division and in a three way tie for the final wild card. Showing no signs of complacency or rustiness after planning a week off, The Falcons coasted to a cushty 30 17 win with quarterback Matt Ryan passing for 262 yards and three touchdowns. “Returning off our bye week, Our goal was to be sold and play fast in all three phases of the game, Falcons coach Mike Smith told journalists..

PersonnelThe 63 year old Wenner has been CEO for 20 years and has been the very public face of group. He has also been very hands on and appeared to be intimately involved with all parts of the industry. With the rapid pace of acquisitions in the snack food Packers Pro Shop sector during the last year, It appears that Wenner could use some help..

Yeah, I can tell the strength http://www.packersproshop.cc/green-bay-packers-jerseys-clay-matthews-jersey-c-2_12 and solace(?) By living aware of the parents. Having the capability to go out and burn your money, Drop the washing in the special moment laundry and asking Mum ‘What’s for dinner’ are real character builders. Oh no they may not be that’s called being a kid..

Adversary Profile: 49ers Welcome needy Ravens To Levi Stadium In Week 6 For Super Bowl RematchNo, There will not be another Harbaugh Bowl when the bay area 49ers and the Baltimore Ravens meet in Week 6 at Levi Stadium, But that doesn mean this Super Bowl XLVII rematch won be full of story lines. official Packers jersey Journey, S. F.

Bulk leg quarters are quoted at $0.40 per -smack. Reduced domestic and export dark meat demand are leading to lower leg quarter prices as demand from domestic food service customers is being impacted by the weak economy. The recent delisting of plants recognised to ship product to Russia will support prices for Russian exports, But much of the product from the delisted plants is being marketed locally and in Mexico, That has put pressure on prices in those markets..