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Oracle 12c 升级失败的降级步骤

Oracle 12c 升级失败的降级步骤

 

降级前步骤
– XML DB 组件在 12c 中是必需的。
在升级到 12c 期间,将安装 XML DB 组件(如果未安装)。
从 12c 降级将删除安装的 XDB 组件

- Enterprise Manager 不支持降级。在降级之前,请重新配置 Oracle EM 控件。请参阅
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide 12c Release 1 (12.1) E17642-10
6 Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
6.6.5 Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after Downgrading Oracle Database

- 升级到 12c 期间,将删除 Database Control 资料档案库。降级之后,需重新配置 DB Control。

Note 870877.1 How To Save Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Data Before Upgrading The Single Instance Database To Other Release ?
Note 876353.1 How To Restore The Oracle Enterprise Manager Data To Downgrade The Single Instance Database To Previous/Source Release ?
- compatible 参数不能已经更改到 12.1.0。
- 禁用 Data Vault(如果已启用)。
Note 803948.1  How To Uninstall Or Reinstall Database Vault in 11g (UNIX)
Note 453902.1 Enabling and Disabling Oracle Database Vault in WINDOWS
- 如果数据库使用 Oracle Label Security,则在新 Oracle Database 12c Oracle 主目录中运行 Oracle Label Security (OLS) 预处理降级 olspredowngrade.sql 脚本(在 $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin 上提供)。注意!此步骤仅在需要降级到12c之前的版本时才需要
- 时区版本应相同。假设升级数据库的过程中时区版本也被升级了,那么要在升级前在源库打patch。例如11.2.0.4已经升级到12.1.0.2.0,时区作为升级的一部分也升级到了18,那么在降级到11.2.0.4.0之前,在11.2.0.4.0的home上打时区patch 18。
- 取消设置并指向 12c 主目录的 ORA_TZFILE(如果已设置)。
- 如果数据库上有 Oracle Application Express,则必须将 apxrelod.sql 文件从 Oracle Database 12c $ORACLE_HOME/apex/ 目录复制到 Oracle 主目录之外的目录,例如系统上的临时目录以稍后执行。
- 如果基于固定对象创建了对象,则删除这些对象以避免可能的 ORA-00600 错误。您可以在降级之后重新创建这些对象。
- 如果降级集群数据库,则彻底关闭实例并将 CLUSTER_DATABASE 初始化参数更改为 FALSE。降级之后,必须将此参数设置回 TRUE。
- 假设在升级之后你已经在升级的数据库打了patch,那么在降级之前,在数据库级别使用datapatch回滚这些patch。

满足以上先决条件之后,可以继续进行降级。

数据库的降级步骤

1) 确保所有数据库组件有效。只能从成功升级的数据库执行降级。要验证数据库组件状态,请执行以下查询

以 SYS 用户身份连接到数据库

col comp_id format a10
col comp_name format a30
col version format a10
col status format a8

select substr(comp_id,1,15) comp_id,substr(comp_name,1,30) comp_name,substr(version,1,10) version,status from dba_registry

2) 验证没有属于 sys/system 的无效对象

select owner, count(object_name) "Invalid object count" from dba_objects where status!='VALID' and owner in ('SYS','SYSTEM') group by owner;

如果计数为零,则可以继续降级。

如果有无效对象,则执行 utlrp.sql 多次,如果对象无法解析为有效状态,则不能继续降级。建立 SR 或在 DBA 社区上发帖以寻求帮助。

或者,对于 1 和 2,运行以下脚本:

Note 556610.1  Script to Collect DB Upgrade/Migrate Diagnostic Information (dbupgdiag.sql)

3) 关闭数据库

Shutdown immediate

4)  对 12c 数据库做备份

5)  以降级模式启动数据库

Startup downgrade;

6)  执行降级脚本

Sql> Spool downgrade.log

Sql> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catdwgrd.sql

注:
$ORACLE_HOME 应指向 12c 主目录

catdwgrd.sql 脚本将数据库中的所有组件降级到支持的主版本或补丁集版本(您最初升级时的版本)

Sql> spool off

Sql> shutdown immediate

Exit SQL Plus

Sql> exit;

7) 如果操作系统为 LINUX/UNIX:

将以下环境变量更改为要降级到的源数据库:

ORACLE_HOME

PATH

编辑 /etc/oratab or /var/opt/oracle/oratab 以更改

将数据库映射到源数据库 Oracle 主目录

如果操作系统是 Windows,则完成以下步骤:


a. 停止所有 Oracle 服务,包括 Oracle Database 12c 数据库的 OracleServiceSID Oracle 服务,其中 SID 是实例名称。

例如,如果 SID 为 ORCL,则在命令行提示符中输入以下内容:

C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORCL
b. 在命令提示符下,通过运行 ORADIM 命令删除 Oracle 服务。如果出现提示,则输入此 Windows 系统上活动标准用户帐户的口令。

例如,如果 SID 为 ORCL,则输入以下命令:

C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
c. 在命令提示符下,使用 ORADIM 命令创建要降级的数据库的 Oracle 服务。

C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -INTPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS

-STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA

8) 还原配置文件

将配置文件(口令文件、参数文件等)还原到降级版本的 ORACLE_HOME。

9) 如果这是 Oracle RAC 数据库,则执行以下命令以将数据库修改为单实例模式:

SET CLUSTER_DATABASE=FALSE

10) 从降级版本 $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin 目录执行 catrelod 脚本。

启动 sqlplus,以具有 sysdba 权限的用户 SYS 身份连接到数据库实例,然后以升级模式启动数据库:

: cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin

: sqlplus

sql> connect sys as sysdba

sql> startup upgrade

sql> spool catrelod.log

sql> @?/rdbms/admin/catrelod.sql

sql> spool off

catrelod.sql 脚本在降级的数据库中重新加载各个数据库组件的合适版本。

11) 运行 utlrp.sql 脚本:

SQL> @utlrp.sql

Sql> exit;

utlrp.sql 脚本重新编译先前处于 INVALID 状态的所有现有 PL/SQL 模块,例如 package、procedure、type 等。

12) 检查已降级数据库的状态:

Note 556610.1  Script to Collect DB Upgrade/Migrate Diagnostic Information (dbupgdiag.sql)
此 sql 脚本是一组查询语句,用在升级前后诊断数据库的状态。脚本将创建名为 db_upg_diag__<时间戳>.log 的文件。

13) 降级之后,可能在 sys 用户下发现无效的 QT 视图。这是因为视图已从基表中选择了错误的列。需要重新创建这些视图。

请参阅说明:

Note 1520209.1 QT_*BUFER Views Invalid after downgrade from 12C

降级后步骤:
1)如果是降级到 Oracle Database 11g 版本 1 (11.1.0.7) 并且数据库中有 Oracle Application Express,则将 apxrelod.sql 脚本复制到的目录(在降级前步骤中)。
运行 apxrelod.sql 脚本以手动重新加载 Oracle Application Express:

SQL> @apxrelod.sql

运行 apxrelod.sql 脚本以避免程序包 APEX_030200.WWV_FLOW_HELP 由于以下错误而成为 INVALID 状态:

PLS-00201: identifier ‘CTX_DDL’ must be declared
2) 如果数据库中启用了 Oracle Label Security,则执行以下脚本

a. 从 Oracle Database 12c 的 Oracle 主目录下将 olstrig.sql 脚本复制到要将数据库降级到的版本的 Oracle 主目录。

b. 从降级到的版本的 Oracle 主目录,运行 olstrig.sql 以在表上使用 Oracle Label Security 策略重新创建 DML 触发器:

SQL> @olstrig.sql

3) 如果降级集群数据库,则必须运行以下命令以降级 Oracle Clusterware database 配置:

$ srvctl downgrade database -d db-unique-name -o oraclehome -t to_version
其中 db-unique-name 是数据库名称(而非实例名称),oraclehome 是已降级数据库的旧 Oracle 主目录的位置,to_version 是数据库所降级到的数据库版本

因为代码的改变,现在-to_version对应的值如下:

RDBMS Version -to_version Value
9.2.0.*              9.2.0.0.0
10.1.0.*            10.0.0.0.0
10.2.0.*            10.2.0.0.0
11.1.0.*            11.0.0.0.0
11.2.0.1            11.2.0.1.0
11.2.0.2            11.2.0.2.0
11.2.0.3            11.2.0.3.0
11.2.0.4            11.2.0.4.0

4) 如果发现失效的SYS/SYETEM的对象,那么可以使用下面的方法来编译这些失效对象

$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba"
SQL> startup upgrade
SQL> spool catout.log
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catproc.sql
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
SQL> spool off
SQL> shutdown immediate

5) 如果数据库从11.2.0.4升级到12.1.0.2之前没有安装XDB,那么在降级回11.2.0.4的时候,XDB的对象需要被移除。然而,我们还是可以发现无效的XDB对象残留在数据库中。这已经被记录为一个bug 22854967,patch已经可以下载了。

Invalid XDB-related Objects After Downgrading To 11.2.0.4 (Doc ID 2163596.1)

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